SQL stands for Structured Query Language and is often pronounced as "sequel". It is not technically a "programming" language. It is a computer language and and database management language used to manipulate relational databases. SQL is considered more of fourth-generation language (4GL) versus a third-generation language (3GL) such as C, C++, Perl and PHP.SQL was originally designed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce. Both Chamberlin and Boyce worked for IBM on relational databases.
SQL has several sub-languages within it:
- Data Query Language (DQL)
- Data Definition Language (DDL)
- Data Control Language (DCL)
- Data Manipulation Language (DML)